BMW X5 Owners & Service Manuals

BMW X5: Piezo Element

The movement of the nozzle needle in the injector is generated no longer by a solenoid coil but rather by a piezo-element.

A piezo-element is an electromechanical converter, i.e. it consists of a ceramic material which converts electrical energy directly into mechanical energy (force/travel).

Engine Service Information
Fig. 64: Identifying Piezo Element

In the case of the piezo-actuator, voltage is generated so that the crystal expands. In order to achieve greater travel, it is possible to design a piezo-element in several layers.

The actuator module consists of layers of the piezo-ceramic material connected mechanically in series and electrically in parallel. The deflection of a piezo-crystal is dependent on the applied voltage up to a maximum deflection; the higher the voltage, the greater the travel.

Injector Adjustment

When the injectors are manufactured, a multitude of measurement data is recorded at specific points in the factory. In this way, the tolerance ranges for injector-quantity adjustment are determined and specified in a six-digit number combination.

Information on the lift performance of the injector is also added for injector voltage adjustment. Injector adjustment is required because of the individual voltage demand of each piezo actuator. An allocation is made to a voltage demand category, which is included in the number combination on the injector.

These data items are transmitted to the ECM. During engine operation, these values are used to compensate for deviations in the metering and switching performance.

NOTE: When replacing an injector, it is absolutely essentially to carry out an injector adjustment.

Engine Service Information
Fig. 65: Identifying Tolerance Range Numbers

Injector Control and Adaptation

The fuel mass required for the operating situation is injected by the piezo-injector into the combustion chamber.

This mass can be influenced by three correcting variables:

The injector opening time and the injector opening lift are activated directly at the piezo injector. The opening time is controlled via the ti signal and the opening lift via the energy quantity in the activation of the piezoinjector.

Injector Adaptation

The fuel masses and injection cycles determined from the load/speed map are included in a pilot-control program map. Here, while further framework parameters are taken into consideration, the energy quantities and injector opening times required to activate the injectors are determined.

The N54 engine can be safely and reliably operated with these program-map values.


For optimization of:

The controlled variables of energy quantities and injector opening times are continuously monitored. This occurs on a bank-selective basis by way of lambda closed-loop control.

The residual oxygen in the exhaust gas is measured in each case for cylinder bank 1 and cylinder bank 2. This measurement result is compared with the values expected from the set correcting variables. The result of a deviation is that the injector opening signal is adapted. This adaptation is stored in the control unit and is therefore available for subsequent engine operation.

However, these stored values are lost when the system is flashed and must be relearned. A further adaptation of the injector activation takes place depending on time and use. This cylinder-selective adaptation involves a check of the residual-oxygen content with a conclusion as to the cylinder causing the situation. To this end, it is necessary for part of the exhaust-gas flow not to be swirled in the turbocharger. For this reason, the flap of the wastegate valve must be fully opened, i.e. swung out of the exhaust-gas flow.

This wastegate-flap position extends beyond its normal opening position in engine operation. Based on the result of this cylinder-selective monitoring, the energy quantity is adapted if necessary to activate the injectors.

Furthermore, the cylinder-selective adaptation includes if necessary an adaptation of the injector opening signal based on smooth running monitoring of the N54 engine. Overall adaptation of the injectors is limited to a 15% additional quantity.

Engine Service Information
Fig. 66: Identifying BMW Measuring Oscilloscope Display Screen

Engine Service Information
Fig. 67: Identifying Oscilloscope Settings Table

Engine Service Information
Fig. 68: Identifying HPI Injection Testing Table


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