BMW X5 Owners & Service Manuals

BMW X5: Boost-Pressure Control

The boost pressure of the turbochargers is directly dependent on the flow of exhaust gas which reaches the turbocharger turbines. Both the velocity and the mass of the exhaust-gas flow are directly dependent on engine speed and engine load.

The engine-management system uses wastegate valves to control the boost pressure. These valves are operated by vacuum-pressure actuators, which are controlled by the electro-pneumatic pressure transducers via the engine-management system.

Engine Service Information
Fig. 40: Identifying Boost-Pressure Control

The vacuum pressure is generated by the permanently driven vacuum pump and stored in a pressure accumulator. The system is designed to ensure that these loads and consumers do not have a negative influence on the brake-boost function.

The exhaust-gas flow can be completely or partially directed to the turbine wheel with the wastegate valves.

When the boost pressure has reached its desired level, the wastegate valve begins to open and direct part of the exhaust-gas flow past the turbine wheel.

This prevents the turbine from further increasing the speed of the compressor. This control option allows the system to respond to various operating situations.

In the idle phase, the wastegate valves of both turbochargers are closed. This enables the full exhaust-gas flow available to be utilized to speed up the compressor already at these low engine speeds.

When power is then demanded from the engine, the compressor can deliver the required boost pressure without any noticeable time lag. In the full-load situation, the boost pressure is maintained at a consistently high level when the maximum permissible torque is reached by a partial opening of the wastegate valves. In this way, the compressors are only ever induced to rotate at a speed which is called for by the operating situation.

The process of the wastegate valves opening, removes the drive energy from the turbine such that no further increase in boost pressure occurs, which in turn improves overall fuel consumption.

At full-load the N54 engine operates at an overpressure of up to Index Explanation Index Explanation 0.8 bar in the intake manifold.

Blow-off Control

The blow-off valves in the N54 engine reduce unwanted peaks in boost pressure which can occur when the throttle valve closes quickly. They therefore have an important function with regard to engine acoustics and help to protect the turbocharger components.

A vacuum pressure is generated in the intake manifold when the throttle valve is closed at high engine speeds.

This leads to a build-up of high dynamic pressure after the compressor which cannot escape because the route to the intake manifold is blocked.

Engine Service Information
Fig. 41: Identifying Turbocharger Components

This leads to a "pumping up" of the turbocharger which means that:

The blow-off valves are mechanically actuated spring-loaded diaphragm valves which are activated by the intake-manifold pressure as follows: In the event of a pressure differential before and after the throttle valve, the blow-off valves are opened by the intake-manifold pressure and the boost pressure is diverted to the intake side of the compressor. The blow-off valves open starting from a differential pressure of 0.3 bar. This process prevents the disruptive and componentdamaging pumping effect from occurring.

The system design dictates that the blow-off valves are also opened during operating close to idle (pressure differential Pcharger/Psuction = 0.3 bar). However, this has no further effects on the turbocharging system.

The turbocharger is pressurized with the full exhaust-gas flow at these low speeds and already builds up a certain level of induction-air precharging in the range close to idle.

If the throttle valve is opened at this point, the full boost pressure required is very quickly made available to the engine.

One of the major advantages of the vacuum pressure-actuated wastegate valves is that they can be partially opened in the mid-range in order not to allow excessive induction-air precharging to the detriment of fuel consumption. In the upper load range, they assume the required control position corresponding to the necessary boost pressure.

Charge-air Cooling

Cooling the charge air in the N54 engine serves to increase power output as well as reduce fuel consumption.

The charge air heated in the turbocharger by its component temperature and by compression is cooled in the intercooler by up to 80ºC.

This increases the density of the charge air, which in turn improves the charge in the combustion chamber. This results in a lower level of required boost pressure. The risk of knock is also reduced and the engine operates with improved efficiency.

Engine Service Information
Fig. 42: Identifying Charge-Air Cooling Operations Diagram

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