BMW X5 Owners & Service Manuals

BMW X5: HPI Function

The fuel is delivered from the fuel tank by the electric fuel pump via the feed line (5) at an "feed" pressure of 5 bar to the high pressure pump. The feed pressure is monitored by the low-pressure sensor (6). The fuel is delivered by the electric fuel pump in line with demand.

If this sensor fails, the electric fuel pump continues to run at 100% delivery with terminal 15 ON.

The high pressure pump is driven "in-tandem" with the vacuum pump which is driven by the oil pump chain drive assembly.

The fuel is compressed in the permanently driven three-plunger high-pressure pump (8) and delivery through the high-pressure line (9) to the rail (3). The fuel accumulated under pressure in the rail in this way is distributed via the high-pressure lines (1) to the piezo injectors (2).

The required fuel delivery pressure is determined by the engine-management system as a function of engine load and engine speed. The pressure level reached is recorded by the high-pressure sensor (4) and communicated to the engine control unit.

Control is effected by the fuel-supply control valve (7) by way of a setpoint/actual-value adjustment of the rail pressure. Configuration of the pressure is geared towards best possible consumption and smooth running of the N54 engine. 200 bar is required only at high load and low engine speed.

High Pressure Pump Function and Design

The fuel is delivered via the supply passage (6) at the admission pressure generated by the electric fuel pump to the high-pressure pump. From there, the fuel is directed via the fuel supply control valve (4) and the low-pressure non-return valve (2) into the fuel chamber (14) of the plunger-and-barrel assembly. The fuel is placed under pressure in this plunger-and-barrel assembly and delivered via the high pressure non-return valve (9) to the high pressure port (7).

Engine Service Information
Fig. 53: Identifying High Pressure Pump Function & Design

The high-pressure pump is connected with the vacuum pump via the drive flange (11) and is thus also driven by the chain drive, i.e. as soon as the engine is running, the three plungers (12) are permanently set into up-anddown motion via the pendulum disc (10).

Fuel therefore continues to be pressurized for as long as new fuel is supplied to the high-pressure pump via the fuel-supply control valve (4). The fuel-supply control valve is activated by means of the engine management connection (3) and thereby admits the quantity of fuel required.

Pressure control is effected via the fuel-supply control valve by opening and closing of the fuel supply channel.

The maximum pressure in the high-pressure area is limited to 245 bar.

If excessive pressure is encountered, the high-pressure circuit is relieved by a pressure-limiting valve via the ports (8 and 5) leading to the low-pressure area.

This is possible without any problems because of the non-compressibility of the fuel, i.e. the fuel does not change in volume in response to a change in pressure. The pressure peak created is compensated for by the liquid volume in the low-pressure area.

Volume changes caused by temperature changes are compensated for by the thermal compensator (1), which is connected with the pump oil filling.

Pressure Generation in High-pressure Pump

The plunger (2) driven by the pendulum disc presses oil (red) into the metal diaphragm (1) on its upward travel.

The resulting change in volume of the metal diaphragm thereby reduces the available space in the fuel chamber.

The fuel thereby placed under pressure (blue) is forced into the rail.

The fuel-supply control valve controls the fuel pressure in the rail. It is activated by the engine management system via a pulse-width modulated (PWM) signal.

Depending on the activation signal, a restrictor cross-section of varying size is opened and the fuel-mass flow required for the respective load point is set. There is also the possibility of reducing the pressure in the rail.

Engine Service Information
Fig. 54: Pressure Generation In High-Pressure Pump

Engine Service Information
Fig. 55: Identifying High-Pressure Pump Location (HDP)


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